• What’s your job situation?
• What type of organisation do you work for?
• Does your job use all your skills?
• Is your education sufficient?
• What reasons prevent you from participating in a training course?
• How many years have you worked?
• What problems have you had finding jobs?
• How much education do you have?
• Have you applied to get your qualifications recognised and
were you successful?
WHO HAS AT LEAST ONE PROBLEM FINDING A JOB?
The majority of the immigrants who had looked for a job had encountered one or more problems, ranging from discrimination and language problems to personal constraints, the recognition of their qualifications or problems with contracts.
Only in Berlin, Stuttgart and Budapest did the majority report no problems finding a job.
WHAT PROBLEMS HAVE YOU ENCOUNTERED WHEN LOOKING FOR WORK?
Temporary contracts were the major problem for immigrant job-seekers in most cities. The most frequently reported problem was that employers only provided immigrants with temporary job contracts. The number who cited job security as a problem ranged from 32% in Antwerp to 59% in Faro.
Immigrants in southern European cities cited another structural problem besides job security: employers offered no legal contract to between 21 and 48% of all immigrants in these cities.
In contrast, immigrants in northern European cities pointed to the way that they were treated on the labour market.
Two major perceptions were that employers discriminated against them (29-44%, lower in German cities) or did not recognise their foreign qualifications (31-41%).
Immigrants occasionally cited problems related to their individual skills and status. Language ranks among the two biggest problems for non-native speakers in Antwerp, Budapest, Lisbon, Faro, Stuttgart, and the two Italian cities.
DOES YOUR CURRENT JOB MATCH YOUR SKILLS
A quarter to a third of surveyed immigrants who succeeded in finding a job perceive themselves to be overqualified. In most cities, half of all workers feel that their job matches their skills and training.
HAVE YOU APPLIED FOR RECOGNITION OF
QUALIFICATIONS? WERE YOU ACCEPTED?
In most cities, only a quarter to a third of foreign-trained immigrants actually applied for recognition. Of these, on average 70% succeeded in getting their qualification fully or partially recognised.
This pattern generally holds across countries for people experiencing over-qualification or problems with qualifications; relatively few apply, but most that do get full or partial recognition.
Overall, the reported recognition rate is highest in Portuguese and Spanish cities but varies significantly between Lyon and Paris, Berlin and Stuttgart, and Antwerp, Brussels, and Liège.
Educated immigrants often get their foreign qualifications recognised if they apply, but few apply.
WHAT PROBLEMS HAVE YOU ENCOUNTERED IN
ACCESSING FURTHER TRAINING?
These immigrants that cannot pursue job training report more challenges than the majority of people in the same country with balancing training, work, and family. Across 11 ICS cities, the three major reasons were the cost of trainings, conflicts with work, and family responsibilities.