Most temporary residents are not only interested in becoming long-term residents in the countries where they live.
The few temporary residents who do not want to naturalise often do not see the value of citizenship or have other reasons that are specific to their country.
In all other countries, one major reason (42-57%) is that the foreigners who do want to naturalise, especially long-term residents, do not see the difference between their current status and citizenship.
Overall, around three out of four non-EU immigrants in most ICS cities said that they are or want to become citizens.
In several cases, immigrants who are eligible for naturalisation take years to apply.
Applicants who meet the residence requirement must not only be interested in applying, but also fulfil all the other legal requirements.
The ICS results raise concerns over the full long-term inclusion of foreign residents in several countries.
Immigrants who are not citizens of their country of residence or other EU countries are mostly absent from national politics, possibly exposed to the threat of expulsion, and, in several EU countries, excluded from public sector jobs, some professions, and full social rights.
When surveyed immigrants did apply for citizenship, they reported the most problems with the policy or implementation in cities in France, Portugal, Italy and Belgium, especially Antwerp.
Once immigrants naturalise, they feel the effects of citizenship in their own lives, their jobs, and often their local communities.